Study: Facebook users tend to be more narcissistic — but happier — than non-users

first_imgPinterest Share Share on Twitter PsyPost interviewed the study’s corresponding author, Julia Brailovskaia of Ruhr-Universität Bochum. Read her explanation of the research below:PsyPost: Why were you interested in this topic?Brailovskaia: In the last ten years, social networking sites (SNS) have become part of the everyday life of many people. With over 1.5 billion users, Facebook is one of the most popular SNSs. Worldwide, users spend a lot of time interacting on Facebook with other users and presenting themselves. Some people, however, avoid the use of this SNS consciously. While earlier studies showed that online behavior on Facebook is associated with some personality traits such as narcissism or extraversion, only few studies investigated its relationship with mental health. These studies partly showed inconsistent results. Furthermore, only little attention was spent on the differences between Facebook users and non-users.We therefore decided to shed some light on this topic with our exploratory study. As part of the ongoing BOOM (Bochum Optimism and Mental Health) project, our study compared Facebook users and non-users regarding personality traits, positive and negative mental health variables.What should the average person take away from your study?Our results reveal significant differences between Facebook users and people who do not use this SNS. Facebook users have higher values of the personality traits narcissism, extraversion and self-esteem than Facebook non-users. Furthermore, they show higher values of life satisfaction, social support and subjective happiness. And there seems to be a stronger association between personality traits on the one hand and depression, anxiety and stress symptoms on the other hand in the group of Facebook users. In remains unclear, however, whether the use of Facebook actually increases positive variables of mental health as well as various personality traits. To answer this question, we are now working on longitudinal and experimental studies.Are there any major caveats? What questions still need to be addressed?Earlier studies showed significant relationships between online interaction and self-presentation on the one hand and various personality traits on the other hand. In our study, we did not investigate online behavior. We only compared users and non-users of Facebook. In future studies, in would be advisable to focus on the association between activities on Facebook, e.g., social interaction, and life satisfaction or depression and anxiety symptoms.Furthermore, to improve the generalizability of our present results, future studies should investigate their replicability in older samples with broader age ranges.Is there anything else you would like to add?Our results cannot answer the following question: Does Facebook use help to improve mental health making its users more resistant against e.g., depression? If this was the case, it would be beneficial to integrate the use of Facebook into prevention programs for mental health. Considering the large potential of Facebook in providing social support and satisfying the need to belong, the use of this platform could be especially meaningful to people without offline social support. Unlike to face-to-face interaction, in online interactions users can take time to think through their course of action and practice managing stressful situations to develop appropriate, resilient behavior.However, such assumptions would also suggest that traits such as narcissism increase with Facebook use. Some authors of earlier studies have already expressed this concern emphasizing that especially younger users of platforms like Facebook show increased narcissism value.The study, “Comparing Facebook Users and Facebook Non-Users: Relationship between Personality Traits and Mental Health Variables – An Exploratory Study“, was also co-authored by Jürgen Margraf. Emailcenter_img New research published in PLOS One has found differences between Facebook users and Facebook non-users regarding personality traits and mental health variables.The study of 790 Facebook users and 155 non-users found that those who participated in the social networking site tended to score higher on measures of narcissism, self-esteem and extraversion. Facebook users also tended to have higher levels of subjective happiness, life satisfaction and social support compared to non-users.But there were no significant differences found between Facebook users and non-users when it came to the personality traits of conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism and openness to experience. Share on Facebook LinkedInlast_img read more

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Fantasy Football Trade Value: JuJu Smith-Schuster, Hunter Henry among buy-low, sell-high candidates for Week 7

first_imgWe are quickly closing in on the halfway mark of the fantasy football season. This week, we have a couple breakout performances in our stock up portion from a few guys who hadn’t done much this year but might have good trade value/waiver wire appeal ahead of Week 7. We also have some big names in our stock down section as they continue to struggle, presenting possible buy-low opportunities (or your last chance to sell high, depending how you look at it).Let’s get into it! Feel free to shoot me feedback on Twitter @JustinVreeland, and remember to check out Fantasy Alarm for more great analysis like this all season long! MORE: Dominate your league with Fantasy Alarm’s season-long toolsLISTEN TO THE SN FANTASY WEEK 7 PREVIEW PODCAST BELOWFantasy Football Trade Candidates: Stock upRobby Anderson, WR NYJ: Anderson finished with five receptions for 125 yards and a touchdown on eight targets in the Jets’ 24-22 win over the Cowboys. Overall, the stat line looks impressive, but it’s important to keep in mind that the majority of it came on a 92-yard touchdown. Without that play, Anderson would have had a four-catch, 33-yard afternoon, and that’s far from impressive. Anderson is known for his big-play ability, so we shouldn’t completely dismiss that lengthy touchdown, but it’s not something you can expect on a weekly basis. I do like the eight targets, though, which were a new season high for Anderson. Same Darnold clearly gave the Jets a shot of life, Anderson is worth adding, but he should be left on your bench in this week’s matchup with the Patriots. He will likely see coverage from Stephon Gilmore, and that usually never ends well for any receiver. Jamison Crowder is the guy that you want to own from the Jets for this week, but Anderson presents an interesting long-term investment, especially with a favorable schedule starting in Week 8 (Jags, Dolphins, Giants, Redskins, Raiders).WEEK 7: Waiver pickups | FAAB planner | Snap countsBenny Snell Jr., RB PIT: Snell set new career highs in both attempts and rushing yards with 17 carries for 75 yards on Sunday night. He also hauled in one pass for an additional 14 yards. He was far more effective on the ground than James Conner was, who finished with 16 carries for 41 yards before exiting with a quad injury. Conner is still far superior in the receiving game, but with his injury and lack of effectiveness on carries this year, a door has opened up for Snell to get some work on the ground. He was fantastic at Kentucky last season, rushing for 1,449 yards and 16 touchdowns, leading to his fourth-round selection in the past NFL Draft. Don’t get me wrong, Conner is still the guy in Pittsburgh, and he has a bye week to heal up a bit, but Snell impressed and is worth a spot on your bench.Hunter Henry, TE LAC: Henry made his return from the injured list Sunday night, and what a return it was. He finished with eight receptions for 100 yards and a pair of touchdowns on nine targets. He has now played in two games this season and totaled 160 yards on 14 targets. Henry has shown promise, and it’s not that surprising to see him have a big night. Though, to be fair, he did pad his stats in garbage time this past week. Either way, the main problem with Henry will always be the injury woes, though, as his career has started off looking a lot like Jordan Reed  (a talented TE who can’t stay on the field). When he is healthy, he is someone that you want to have in your lineup on a weekly basis, but if he has another strong game or two, it wouldn’t be a bad idea to sell high on him before another injury takes place (hopefully it doesn’t happen, but it seems likely with him at this point). I would not recommend trying to trade for Henry, as his price will be too high after this one.WEEK 7 DFS LINEUPS:Y! cash | Y! GPP | DK cash | DK GPP | FD cash | FD GPPCarolina D/ST: We have another D/ST sighting this week, as the Panthers have been fantastic. They are currently second in fantasy points, only trailing New England, and they have scored at least 13 points in four straight games. In their win over the Bucs this week, they had a season high 21 points thanks to seven sacks, five interceptions, and two fumble recoveries. They have a bye this week, which might make them available in your league, and they would be worth putting in a claim on as they have a decent schedule coming out of the bye week, facing the 49ers, Titans, and Packers before taking on the Falcons in Carolina (not a bad matchup either, as Atlanta struggles on the road). They currently lead the NFL in sacks with 27 and are second in interceptions with nine. They have only one defensive touchdown to this point, making their standing as the second-highest scoring D/ST that much more impressive.WEEK 7 NON-PPR RANKINGS:Quarterback | Running back | Wide receiver | Tight end | D/ST | KickerFantasy Football Trade Candidates: Stock downJared Goff, QB LAR: What an ugly performance from Goff in Week 6. He finished with 1.12 fantasy points, completing 13 passes for just 78 yards and a lost fumble. Yes, the 49ers defense is good, but this is a guy that is supposed to be a top-tier quarterback, and he usually plays well at home, so this was very ugly. I have never been a big Goff fan, but he’s playing even worse than even I would have expected. How can a guy with all the weapons that he has be this bad? He hasn’t scored 25 fantasy points in a single game yet and only has one game over 20 (and it took 68 pass attempts to do it). He is second in the NFL in pass attempts but 17th in fantasy points (among QBs). He has no rushing ability, he leads the league in fumbles lost with four, and he has a 1:1 touchdown to INT ratio of 7:7. Gross. This all from a guy that has Cooper Kupp, Brandin Cooks, Robert Woods, and Todd Gurley at his disposal. Here is the good news, though: His next two games are against the Falcons and Bengals, both of which are horrendous on defense. Now’s the time to try to get him on the cheap.WEEK 7 PPR RANKINGS: Running back | Wide receiver | Tight endJuJu Smith-Schuster, WR PIT: Another week, another terrible performance for JuJu. He finished with just one catch for seven yards on four targets. It was his second game of the year with fewer than five fantasy points, and he still hasn’t topped 20 in a single game yet this year. Not exactly ideal for a guy that was a first- or second-round pick this year. The Steelers offense is a mess through the air, so it’s not all JuJu’s fault, but a guy of his level has to do better than this, regardless of who is at quarterback. Normally he would be an ideal buy-low candidate, but I am not entirely sure that you can trust him to start doing any better. That being said, I would be willing to take a chance on him if the price is right. He is too talented for this, and the Steelers offense is going to have to start getting the ball to the receivers at some point, as teams are going to start keying in on passes to the running backs. If you currently own JuJu, you are probably stuck with him, as you probably won’t get any enticing offers.Melvin Gordon, RB LAC: Gordon played like trash for the second straight game since ending his holdout, finishing with eight carries for 18 yards and hauling in three passes for 30 yards. That brings his rushing total up to a whopping 49 yards on 20 carries. The Chargers were averaging 22.5 points per game in the four games without Gordon and have averaged 15 points in the two games since he returned. Things will improve going forward, but there is no reason to expect that he will return to elite fantasy production. Hopefully you traded him when the news broke of his return because you’re stuck with him at this point if you didn’t. His value has dropped so much that it wouldn’t even make sense to trade him.MORE WEEK 7 DFS: Stacks | Values | Lineup Builder Zach Ertz, TE PHI: Ertz had his worst performance of the season in Week 6, hauling in four of nine targets for 54 yards and losing a fumble. It was his first time finishing with fewer than 10 fantasy points as he only provided 7.4 points this week. While this was his worst week of the year, it’s been a year-long struggle for Ertz, as he hasn’t topped 75 yards or 17.5 fantasy points in any game this season. Keep in mind that Ertz averaged 17.5 fantasy points per game last season and he topped 100 yards receiving on five different occasions. He is still fifth in fantasy points at the tight end position, so it’s not a complete disaster, but he is far from making good on his draft-day price tag. This is someone I would look into buying-low on, depending on what your situation at tight end is. He is reliable and someone that you can feel good about in your lineup on a weekly basis.MORE: Dominate your league with Fantasy Alarm’s season-long toolsFantasy Football Stock WatchAdam Humphries, WR TEN: While writing my deep gem wide receiver report in the preseason, I said this of Humphries: “If something were to happen to Marcus Mariota and he were to miss action, Humphries is easily the type of guy that Ryan Tannehill would lean on.” Nothing happened to Mariota, outside of really poor play, but he did get benched with about five minutes left in the third quarter of Sunday’s game against Denver. In came Tannehill. In just a little more than a quarter worth of action, Tannehill hit Humphries four times for a total of 34 yards. The Titans have yet to name their starting quarterback for Week 7, but Humphries is worth adding in PPR leagues if available with the hope that Tannehill is the guy that the Titans roll with. He probably won’t produce massive numbers, but he will be a weekly asset with Tannehill under center.last_img read more

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APNewsBreak: Medicare bought meds for dead people

first_imgWASHINGTON | Call it drugs for the departed: Medicare’s prescription program kept paying for costly medications even after patients were dead.The problem was traced back to a head-scratching bureaucratic rule that’s now getting a second look.A report coming out Friday from the Health and Human Services Department’s inspector general says the Medicare rule allows payment for prescriptions filled up to 32 days after a patient’s death — at odds with the program’s basic principles, not to mention common sense.“Drugs for deceased beneficiaries are clearly not medically indicated, which is a requirement for (Medicare) coverage,” the IG report said. It urged immediate changes to eliminate or restrict the payment policy.Medicare said it’s working on a fix.Investigators examined claims from 2012 for a tiny sliver of Medicare drugs — medications to treat HIV, the virus that causes AIDS — and then cross-referenced them with death records. They found that the program paid for drugs for 158 beneficiaries after they were already dead. The cost to taxpayers: $292,381, an average of $1,850 for each beneficiary.Medicare’s “current practices allowed most of these payments to occur,” the report said.Of 348 prescriptions dispensed for the dead beneficiaries, nearly half were filled more than a week after the patient died. Sometimes multiple prescriptions were filled on behalf of a single dead person.Investigators don’t know what happened to the medications obtained on behalf of dead people, but some may have been diverted to the underground market for prescription medicines. The report said HIV drugs can be targets for fraud since they can be very expensive; one common HIV drug costs about $1,700 for a month’s supply, it said.Medicare is the government’s premier health insurance program, providing coverage to about 55 million seniors and disabled people. Prescription coverage delivered through private insurance plans began in 2006 as a major expansion of the program. But it’s also been a target for scams.The report did not estimate the potential financial impact across the $85 billion-a-year Medicare prescription program known as Part D. But investigators believe the waste may add up to millions of dollars.“The exposure for the entire Part D program could be significant,” said Miriam Anderson, team leader on the report. “The payment policy is the same for all drugs, whether they are $2,000 drugs to treat HIV or $4 generic drugs.”In a formal response, Medicare agreed with the investigators’ recommendations.“After reviewing this report, (Medicare) has had preliminary discussions with the industry to revisit the need for a 32-day window,” wrote Marilyn Tavenner, the Obama administration’s Medicare chief.Medicare had originally maintained that the date of service listed in the billing records could instead reflect when a pharmacy submitted bills for payment. That billing date might have actually occurred after a prescription was filled, since some nursing home and institutional pharmacies submit their bills in monthly bundles.However, the inspector general’s investigators found that about 80 percent of the prescriptions for dead beneficiaries were filled at neighborhood pharmacies, undercutting Medicare’s first explanation. As for the remainder, the investigators said they didn’t see any reason pharmacies can’t report an accurate date of service.Investigators said they stumbled on the problem during an examination of coverage for AIDS drugs dispensed to Medicare beneficiaries. Sexually transmitted diseases are an increasingly recognized problem among older people.That earlier investigation raised questions about expensive medications billed on behalf of nearly 1,600 Medicare recipients.Some had no HIV diagnosis in their records, but they were prescribed the drugs anyway. Others were receiving excessively large supplies of medications. Several were getting prescriptions filled from an unusually large number of pharmacies.Prescription drug fraud has many angles. When the high price of a drug puts it out of reach for certain patients, it can create an underground market. And some medications, like painkillers and anti-anxiety pills, are constantly sought after by people with substance-abuse issues.___last_img read more

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